Written by Dr Kaylene Henderson
Does your child incessantly sniff? Have a cough with no cause? Twitch or blink for no reason? Then perhaps your child has a tic. But before you go checking his hairline for a small burrowing insect, read on for all you need to know about childhood tics.
Tics also seem to run in families along with ADHD and OCD, suggesting a genetic link between these conditions.
Tics in children are divided into four categories:
1. Simple motor tics: These movements are the most common tics in kids. Examples include eye blinking, facial grimacing or jerking movements of the body.
2. Simple vocal tics: These simple sounds can include coughing, sniffing, throat clearing or grunting.
3. Complex motor tics: These complex movements (which can look deliberate) include actions such as smelling objects, walking, twirling, jumping or mimicking the behavior of others.
4. Complex vocal tics: These are generally words or phrases although might be said out of context or in a way that echoes what has just been said
Tics in kids can change over time. For example, a child who at first has an eye-blinking tic might have a facial grimacing tic instead a few weeks later. And while tics in children tend to occur many times each day, they can also come and go, disappearing for days or even weeks before returning.
While tics occur quite commonly in children, the percentage of kids who go on to have a chronic tic disorder is much lower. Diagnoses of Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder are made when children have had EITHER vocal or motor tics which have lasted for at least one year. Rarer still is Tourette’s Disorder in which children have had BOTH vocal and motor tics (although not necessarily at the same time) for at least 12 months. Compared with common childhood tics, only about 4-5 in 10,000 children will develop Tourette’s Disorder.
How you can help with your child’s tics:
While most kids with tics report that they have no control over them, occasionally children can suppress their tics for a few seconds or even minutes. Sometimes parents mistake this to mean that their child can stop their tics if they try hard enough. Unfortunately the attention, frustration and stress which sometimes accompanies this belief tends to make the tic worse.
Instead, it’s more useful early on to draw as little attention as possible to a child’s tic. Tics usually occur less often when the child is relaxed, absorbed in an interesting activity or asleep. In contrast, stress, fatigue, illness and boredom seem to increase tics for many children.
Other useful strategies include educating the child about tics, reassuring them that tics are common and often short-lived and teaching relaxation strategies to lower baseline levels of stress. Sharing information about a child’s tics with their friends and teachers can also be helpful.
For some children with persistent tics, a behavioral therapy technique known as ‘habit reversal therapy’ has been shown to be helpful. This involves teaching the child to become aware of the sensations that arise when a tic is imminent. Once the child has learned to identify these warning signs, they are taught to deliberately perform an alternative sound or action which appears more socially appropriate and which interrupts and reduces the tic. These techniques are usually taught by a Psychologist or Psychiatrist and are then practiced at home.
When to seek help for tics in children:
While most tics in children will disappear as suddenly as they appeared, some will come back at times of stress. A small percentage of children with tics will go on to be diagnosed with a chronic tic disorder. Unfortunately there’s no way of predicting which of these future outcomes will eventuate.
If any of the following are present, seek the advice of your Family Doctor or Pediatrician:
– if your child is particularly self-conscious, anxious, distressed or having difficulty functioning as a result of their tics
– if your child’s tic has been present for more than one year
– if other symptoms are present. Childhood tics can also occur in the context of a genetic or neurological condition, as a side-effect of medication or following an infection.
– if you’re worried. After all, parents know their children best and if you’re concerned, this is reason enough to seek expert advice.
Dr Kaylene Henderson
MBBS FRANZCP Cert C&A Psych
Dr Kaylene Henderson is a Child & Adolescent Psychiatrist and Founder of Little Children Big Dreams which provides help for children who are afraid of the dark or scared of monsters – http://www.littlechildrenbigdreams.com/. Dr Henderson, a mother of three, also provides parents with free online parenting tips and child psychiatry information on her Little Children Big Dreams website blog and on her Facebook Page -https://www.facebook.com/littlechildrenbi